The self-standing personal pronoun need not be used in a sentence with a verb construction since the person will be indicated by the verb subject (or object), but when the self-standing form is used, it provides emphasis: Sisi tutakwenda mjini. Ame ni ambia. Vikombe... visahani vyake The cups... their saucers The near demonstrative is made of three components: 1. E. Interrogatives, [Since it precedes the verb stem, we use the term prefix for the object rather than infix which has become popular in literature on Bantu languages.]. mwana w(ak)o your child contracts, then Welcome to the 8th lesson about Swahili grammar.We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions, adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns.. We will start with prepositions.In general, they are used to link words to other words. Aliwaona mjini. When two nouns of different classes occur in the subject of a sentence with only one verb, the verb will have either a Class 8 ("vitu") subject: Madirisha na milango vimefika. These function in the verb as She has cut her finger (literally cut herself the finger). 10 meza hizo those tables, 16 mahali hapo that place B). The demonstrative then functions like a definite article: Kile kikombe kikavunjika. C. Possessive pronouns Kisu hiki hiki, this very same knife (the one right here nearby) 2 watu wale those people, 3 mti ule that tree 17 mjini kule there in town your. The good thing is, you have probably been doing this (to some degree) already! Put the chair right (exactly) here. 4. The cup (that one we talked about) broke. The changes are those described in paragraph 12, demonstrated in the following examples: When one wants to express an indefinite "it" in Swahili with no noun referent, e.g. (See paragraph 21. Third person possessive Each possessive pronoun has a singular and a plural form. Imenyesha tangu asubuhi. 18 chumbani mle there inside the room. The vowel of the pronominal prefix follows h- 17 mjini huku here in town 4 miti hiyo those trees, 5 yai hilo that egg By elimination of the adjoining portions of the words: 10 meza zile those tables, 16 mahali pale that place A number of other ideas are economically expressed in Swahili by use of the possessive: mmoja wetu one of us baadhi yenu some of you (plural) kati yetu among us nyuma yangu behind, after me When designation of a person follows kwa, the appropriate possessive stem is used: kwangu for (or to) me kwako for (or to) you (singular) kwao for (or to) them . You can ask him questions, and he answers well. Second person plural object prefix : -WA -(E)NI kwa ajili yangu for my sake, because of me Swahili - Nouns - Possessive. Or the subject prefix appropriate for the last-named item: These stems, which designate the owners, must have a prefix, i.e. We shall see him. 18 chumbani humo there inside the room. Swahili possessive and body parts. Class Has he told you his news? A&B), 3. 6 mayai yale those eggs, 7 kiti kile that chair Nilikwenda pamo ja naye. (load). The first syllable is identical to the first syllable of the "near" demonstrative". changu . (plural). 2. Nitachukua huu. Pass those buildings (i.e., the post office and bank mentioned in the previous sentence). You bathed the child. Gari limetengenezwa nao. our child. The personal pronouns may be contracted with NA : na mimi: nami Class na ninyi: nanyi When the object JI is used, the subject and object are the same person: Nime ji jengea nyumba. First Person Possessive It always begins with h- The 8th lesson contains the Swahili pronouns including the subject, object and possessive forms. We start with the object pronounssuch as "I, you, her ..." I: Mimi. The near demonstrative follows the noun, as demonstrated by the examples above. 8 viti vile those chairs, 9 meza ile that table She saw children in town. They depend … Anakaa peke yake She lives alone, 2. kwenda z- go one's way Thanks to Patricia Wallace for assistance preparing this page for the Web. Kisu hicho hicho, that very same knife (the one we mentioned a little while ago). 10 meza hizi these tables, 16 mahali hapa this place She saw the children in town. I am reading a book. The most used forms are listed in the table above. baadhi yenu some of you (plural) 1-2 use any of the three types of demonstrative: Mtu huyu huyu This very person--this one right here my child. 2. The demonstratives are built from the pronominal prefixes. It was difficult to awaken. Remember Me Not a member yet? We are going to town. Tinycards by Duolingo is a fun flashcard app that helps you memorize anything for free, forever. The windows and doors have arrived. This is, however, a perfectly acceptable form, and much used, when the context makes clear that the meaning is "you" not "them". B. Login with your site account. my child. Weka kiti hapa hapa. The form given in the example below is unambiguous and should be used whenever it is necessary to make clear that "you", not "them", is meant: Without the suffix -(E)NI in which E replaces the final A of the verb stem, and -NI is the suffix, two meanings are possible: Atawaambia He will tell you. I will carry this one. I went together with her. Each personal pronoun has its own possessive stem: First person singular: – angu (my) Second person singular: – ako (your) Third person singular: – ake (his/hers)*. The second person plural form has three possible variations, one of which is rarely used. Aliwaoneni, he saw you (plural). (See paragraph 83 KUWA NA) kwao for (or to) them, 4. Upite nyumba hizo. The distant demonstrative pronoun has these components: 1. juu yetu above us, concerning us, our responsibility The reflexive object JI ndugu y(ak)o your brother contracts to nduguyo wango mtoto. Which book do you want? Swahili Grammar. Hiki. I have a fever. Shall we cultivate the farm for you? wake mtoto. kwako for (or to) you (singular) Ninasoma kitabu. Fundi huyo huyo That very same craftsman we were talking about. UNIT OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you should be able to: Form demonstratives for nouns in all classes Give simple, direct commands Master the following vocabulary: Swahili Unit 6 Vocabulary NEW CONTENT Here's the lecture audio, if you'd like to listen along: DEMONSTRATIVES Demonstratives indicate “this”, “these”, “that” and "those" objects. mwana w(ak)e his/her child contracts to mwanawe She saw the child in town. This is a list of pronouns in Swahili. Tumefanya kazi. U- M- 3rd Person: Yeye Wao [He/She, Her/Him] [They/Them] A- WA- Zingatia [Note] ita [call] itwa [be called] Ninaitwa ___ . Nina homa. Uwaite wanafunzi. Some expressions constructed with the possessive: 1. peke y- alone: 2. When designation of a person follows kwa, the appropriate possessive stem is used: kati yetu among us na wao: nao. Tuwalimieni shamba? 17 mjini kuku huku mjini kuko huko 3. A limited number of words - mainly terms of relationship - form contractions with the possessive. A number of other ideas are economically expressed in Swahili by use of the possessive: Here's how you say it. Ulimwogesha mtoto. Watoto... miguu yao The children... their legs. In the third and rarely used possibility, the second person singular object KU is used plus the suffix -(E)NI for the pluralizing information: You need only to be able to recognize this form should you hear it used. Wamempa. Waweza kumwuliza maswali, naye hujibu vizuri. In written Swahili, only three relationship terms are commonly contracted in this way: There are two ways by which the contraction is made: 1. I have built a house for myself. Vitabu vya walimu The teachers' books 4 miti ile those trees, 5 yai lile that egg 2 watu hao those people, 3 mti huo that tree (See paragraph 63. Wazazi wangu wawili My two parents. Please note that kujifunza already has the object JI ; no other object can be used with it. wango mtoto. Kwa herini, good-bye (all of you) In Swahili, possessives are formed by combining a possessive stem with the appropriate possessive prefix for the noun class of the possessed noun. She will leave tomorrow. The near demonstrative: this, right here na wewe: nawe Pembe za kongoni The hartebeeste's horns. Use of subject prefixes in both positive and negative constructions: Subject prefixes, on the other hand, are subject to change preceding a vowel. When the object is designated by a noun in the sentence, whether or not to also use the object prefix in the verb construction is influenced by certain factors: 1. As part of an assignment for Swahili I at the University of Pittsburgh, I decided to create a "cheat sheet" or quick reference for the vocabulary and conjugations that we've covered.
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