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multi male polygyny

Most such species exhibit polygyny, in which males have multiple partners. [19] Research shows that competition and conflict can intensify to unbearable level for co-wives causing women to commit suicide due to psychological distress. An effort led in 2008 to outlaw polygyny in the country was fiercely opposed by Islamic religious leaders, citing the practice as a cultural, religious and pragmatic reality of the nation. The sex ratio for each marriage can involve one man and one woman (monogamy), one man and many women (polygyny), or two or more men with one woman (polyandry). 3. Polygynous structures (excluding leks) are estimated to occur in up to 90% of mammals. This is God's commandment to you. Surely in this are signs for people who reflect. This is despite the fact that the males are larger, stronger, and more aggressive. Because male–male competition is central to resource defense polygyny, it is important to consider how competition among males occurs. Lek mating is frequently regarded as a form of polygyny, because one male mates with many females, but lek-based mating systems differ in that the male has no attachment to the females with whom he mates, and that mating females lack attachment to one another. Although far less popular there, it is nonetheless also legal in Nigeria's east and south. Females of X. varipuncta occasionally fly to a hovering male, almost certainly attracted by a strongly floral-scented pheromone produced by a large metasomal gland and released by males (Minckley, Buchmann, & Wcislo, 1991). Taking additional wives was regarded as one of the fundamental indicators of a successfully established man. In other words, the reproductive benefits gained by receiving help with infant care outweigh costs associated with uncertain paternity. Mating groups of females with single males can be found in bat boxes during the autumn (Gerell and Lundberg, 1985; Lundberg and Gerell, 1986; Gerell-Lundberg and Gerell, 1994). Most countries that permit polygyny today are Muslim-majority countries. In this case, it would be hard to determine whether the origins were that of high libido, as polygyny would be practiced regardless. This system includes more than one breeding adult of each sex and offspring and varies greatly in size. water, food) are patchy (clumped) and when females occur in groups. Multi-male/multi-female (a.k.a., multi-male group). Logoli men with large families were also capable of obtaining justice, as they would be feared by people, who would not dare to use force to take their livestock or other goods from them. [84] Although illegal in the country, polygamy is encouraged by certain religious circles, and the number of practitioners has increased. That is, most people mate with more than one person throughout their lifetime, but do not commit to more than one person at the same time for a life-long partnership. Under paragraph 2387 of "Other offenses against the dignity of marriage" of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, it states "is not in accord with the moral law." Yemen, a majority Muslim nation, follows Islamic tradition where polgyny is acceptable up to four wives only if the husband treats all wives justly. Alcock, John. Children born into these households were considered free. [46] This has been attributed to the inequality factor of polygyny, where if the richest and most powerful 10 percent of males have four wives each, the bottom 30 percent of males cannot marry. Concubines had a lower status than full wives, generally not being seen in public with their husband and not having rights to decisions in the house. 5. An Introduction to Behavioral Ecology. The economist Michèle Tertilt concludes that countries that practice polygyny are less economically stable than those that practice monogamy. It would be a mistake to automatically assume that non-human primate one-male-several-female groups are dominated by males. [32][33][34][35] The concept was expressed in the 11th century by historian Dudo of Saint-Quentin in his semi-imaginary History of The Normans. [64] In most cases, women do not have access to their children if they decide to leave polygyny, nor are they allowed to take them, due to cultural ideas of ownership in relation to progeny. For instance, in mountain farming communities, resources are scarce – they are extracted from the earth in a labor-intensive manner whereby the collective effort of multiple males are necessary to produce enough resources to sustain a single family. They then typically migrate out of the group to locate new groups where they may have access to females. [60] In addition to these two mechanisms, variation in HIV prevalence rates by union type is possibly due to individuals in polygynous unions are typically part of a sexual network with concurrent partnerships. A type of "surrogate pregnancy" arrangement was reported to have been observed, in which some wives who are unable to bear children, find fulfillment in the children and family provided by a husband taking additional wives. The observed experiences of some of the women in polygynous unions tend to be characterized by frequent jealousy, conflicts, competition, tensions, and psychological stresses. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. [40][41] The Annals of Ulster states that in 821 the Vikings plundered an Irish village and "carried off a great number of women into captivity". Polygyny (Gr. However, in the case of a divorce or their husbands' death they can remarry after the completion of Iddah, as divorce is legal in Islamic law.

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