(iii) Identify C and mention its importance in PCR. free from other macromolecules. Answer the questions that follow enzymes recognise a particular palindromic nucleotide sequence and cuts the DNA at that site. Taq polymerase is used in the reaction, which can tolerate heat. Ans. (ii) The DNA polymerase is thermostable and withstands the high temperature treatment during denaturation of the DNA The most commonly used bioreactors are of stirred type. The host cells that produce foreign gene product are called transgenic organisms or Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). CBSE Class 12 Principles of Inheritance and Variation class 12 Notes Biology in PDF are available for free download in myCBSEguide mobile app. NCERT Solutions for Class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12, 1. What is a bioreactor used for? How does it work? Cloudflare Ray ID: 5f8e5e864bb7374c 1.Name the enzymes that are used for the isolation of DNA from bacterial and fungal cells for recombinant DNA technology. NCERT DC Pandey Sunil Batra HC Verma Pradeep Errorless. How is repeated amplification of DNA made possible using PCR? 1.Explain the basis on which the gel electrophoresis technique works. Though both the nucleic acids can act as genetic material, DNA is much more preferred. (ii) Used in making multiple copies of same DNA by using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). [All India 2009] (v) Ligation of DNA fragment into a vector requires a vector DNA and source DNA. Taq polymerase is used in the reaction, which can tolerate heat. 8. (i) A-Denaturation of the double stranded DNA. (b) Cells having genes of interest can be grown on a small or on a large scale. Your IP: 220.127.116.11 . Name the type of bioreactor shown. (i) Separation of desired product. free from other macromolecules. (i) What is a bioreactor? 13. (i) Isolation of DNA from bacterial cell can be done by: Ans. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. (i) Denaturation The double stranded DNA is denatured by applying high temperature of 95°C for 15 seconds. The purified DNA is incubated with the specific restriction enzyme at conditions optimum for the enzyme to act. (vii) Sampling ports (choose any two). Bacterial cells are treated with lysozyme to digest the cell wall for releasing DNA. (b) The ampicillin resistant gene can be called a selectable marker. (vi) The stirrer facilitates mixing and oxygen availability throughout the bioreactor. (ii) Name two commonly used bioreactors. • [All India 2014C] [All India 2009c] How do bioreactors help in their production? 1. Bioreactors help in producing these proteins on a large scale as View Answer. Explain the contribution of Thermus aquaticus in the amplification of a gene of interest. (ii) Synthesis of multiple copies of this desired gene. 4. 14. If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. CBSE 2014 Class 12 Biology Paper II. Downstream processing After the product formation in bioreactions, they are (i) This enzyme remains active during the high temperature applied in the denaturation of double stranded DNA. and [Foreign 2014] [All India 2014; Foreign 2014 ] It acts as genetic material and catalyst. (i) Name the process Ans. C-DNA polymerase or Taq polymerase. Genetic isolation is population of organisms that has little genetic mixing with other organisms within the same species. (a) DNA is enclosed within the membranes. (e) pH control system The two components of a stirred tank bioreactor are: (i) Identify A and B illustrations in the following: Tb ese include: The amplified fragments, if desired can be used to ligate with a vector for further cloning. This increases the surface * sea for oxygen transfer, thus facilitating the growth and metabolism of cells and hence, productions of recombinant products as well. (iii) Extension DNA polymerase extends the primers by adding nucleotides complementary to the template provided in the reaction. [All India 2008] The DNA gets multiplied. (i) Cutting this desired gene at specific location. These are sequence of base pairs that reads same on the two strands of DNA, when orientation of reading is kept same. * A thermostable DNA polymerase (Taq polymerase) is used in the reaction, which can tolerate the high temperature of the reaction. (i) Two sets of primers are required. Integron classes 1 and 2 contain antibiotic resistance gene cassettes and have been the focus of numerous and widespread studies (5, 7, 12). (ii) These provide optimum conditions of pH, oxygen, salts, substrates, etc., to get the desired product. Ans. Amplification of gene is done using polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). ... During isolation of genetic material, the chemical used to precipitate out the purified DNA is. Ans. (i) Bioreactors are large vessels in which raw materials are biologically converted into specific products by microbes, plant and animal cells or human cells. (ii) Reintroduction of the recombinant DNA into bacterial cell can be done by the following methods: (ii) A and C are called palindromes. Hence, it can be used for a number of cycles in amplification. What is the host called that produce a foreign gene product? In most organisms, it is DNA, whereas in some it is RNA. [Delhi 2010c] (iii) C-DNA polymerase or Taq polymerase. This enables bacteria to take up rDNA. Name the source of taq polymerase. The DNA polymerase used in PCR is Tag polymerase extracted from Thermus aquaticus. In medicine the latter application is the most common. Die Aufgaben wurden von professionellen Pädagogen … 2 Marks Questions. MOLECULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE. (i) Optimum temperature A bioreactor is used for converting the raw materials into specific products biologically such as proteins, enzymes, etc., through the use of microbial, plant or animals cells. (ii) Annealing Two sets of primers are added, which anneal to the 3′ end of each separated strand. (f ) Sampling ports to withdraw small volumes of culture periodically. Growth conditions that a bioreactor provides for obtaining desired product are: (c) In small scale, cells are grown on cultures and then expressed protein is extracted and purified by various separation methods. [Foreign 2010] If a desired gene is identified in an organism for some experiments, explain the process of the following (i) List the three steps involved in Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Each separated strand acts as a template. Ans.The enzymes used for the isolation of DNA from bacterial cells is lysozyme and fungal cells is chitinase. (ii) Annealing Two sets of primers are added, which anneal to the 3′ end of each separated strand. Taq polymerase is thermostable and withstands the high temperature used in denaturation process. 3. Write the purpose for which it is used? Mention its importance in biotechnology. Explain the specific role of this enzyme in PCR. Desired gene can be amplified to produce even a billion copy of DNA. 19. (vi) The co mpo.nor.its of a bioreactox are: 1. Why is the enzyme cellulase used for isolating genetic material from plant cells but not for animal cells? Name the source of the DNA polymerase used in PCR technique. (ii) Agitator system Ans. 3. Ans. Ans. All these steps are repeated many times to get several copies of the desired DNA. (iii) Temperature control system 5. Class 4 integrons have been termed superintegrons and are found on the small chromosome of Vibrio cholerae. it is carried out in the following steps: What are recombinant proteins? Mention why it is used? 7. (i) Bioreactors are large vessels in which raw materials are biologically converted into specific products by microbes, plant and animal cells or human cells. The first step in rDNA technology is to isolate the desired DNA in its pure form i.e. it is carried out in the following steps: All these steps are repeated many times to get several copies of the desired DNA. (iii) Isolation of desired DNA fragment is carried out using agarose gel electrophoresis (as discussed earlier). The best app for CBSE students now provides Principles of Inheritance and Variation class 12 Notes latest chapter wise notes for quick preparation of CBSE board exams and school-based annual examinations. ampicillin), is Write the role of primers and DNA polymerase in PCR. (ii) B-Primers. Ans. Schulstufe, Biologie. How can the following be made possible for biotechnology experiments? (iii) C-DNA polymerase or Taq polymerase. (v) In the spar ged stirred tank bioreactor, sterile air bubbles are sparged, to increase the surface area foi oxygen transfer.
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