G. Pratt, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. After all, all of these elements are linked with geography. Cultural landscapes were seen not only as the result of human labor, but also as cultural products that ‘expressed and supported a range of political, social and moral assumptions’ (1). J. Glassman, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001, Cities: Capital, Global, and World; Cultural Geography; Ecology, Cultural; Ecology, Political; Economic Geography; Economic Transformation: From Central Planning to Market Economy; Environment and Development; Feminist Political Ecology; Food Security; Foreign Investment: Direct; Gender and Environment; Gender and Feminist Studies in Geography; Global Environmental Change: Human Dimensions; Globalization: Geographical Aspects; Human–Environment Relationships; International Trade: Geographic Aspects; Local–Global Linkages: Environmental Aspects; Marxist Geography; Postcolonial Geography; Postmodernism in Geography; Social Movements: Environmental Movements; Social Movements, Geography of; Space and Social Theory in Geography; Spatial Equity; Sustainable Development; Uneven Development, Geography of, Colleen McCue, in Data Mining and Predictive Analysis (Second Edition), 2015, The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) has defined human geography or “human terrain” as, “[t]he spatial differentiation and organization of human activity and its interrelationships with the physical environment.”20. Other research evaluates contemporary environmental changes and their implications not only for environmental futures but also for individual life chances. A different sort of reconceptualization of cultural landscape began in the UK in the 1980s. R.J. Johnston, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. European cultural geography was defined as the main learning goal of the course. Trowbridge (1913) discussed the notion of ‘imaginary maps,’ making it clear that geography existed not only in the objective physical environment but also in our imagination; that imagination could produce vivid verbal or pictorial descriptions, as were found in numerous novels, poetry, and stories told. Population geography is largely concerned with the three main demographic characteristics of fertility, mortality, and migration; investigations using census and other data are complemented by detailed case studies of decision making, such as whether and where to migrate and how relevant information is received and processed. This approach focused on ‘who gets what, where, and how’—that is, on issues of social justice and inequality. The majority of welfare-focused research was concerned with cities in ‘developed’ countries; however, attention was also paid to inequalities in the rural areas of such countries and these perspectives have been used in studies of developing countries, Eastern Europe and the former USSR. This is followed by a typology of models in geography as a structured review of the different types of models and their main uses. The scientific results of urban research increasingly serve as a basis for decisions on public investment, allocation of resources, and socioeconomic and urban development planning. Attention is then directed at a number of important challenges issues in geographic modeling. Much contemporary work studies company locational decision-making processes, the regulatory regimes of individual states (including policies designed to attract and retain investment), and their impact on the pattern of economic activity. Rey, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. These were counter-posed to the earlier studies of housing search and housing choice to suggest that they had paid too little attention to the constraints on people's choices in the housing market. Within this enterprise is a rejuvenated interest in the history of geography itself, not merely as a means of better appreciating where the discipline has come from but also of illustrating the importance of place and context in its evolution; geography, like so much else, is a range of practices that emerged and evolved in response to local stimuli. In distinction to a strict Marxist view, the culture of cultural landscapes was not seen as divorced from the ‘real’ world of socio-economic formations and thereby dismissed as unimportant, but was instead regarded as an integral component of that world. The NGA has further subdivided human geography into 13 elements or themes that “best characterize the people and their culture within the context of their environment”21: Although defined and described here as unique and separate elements, physical and human geography frequently interact and combine to define space and structure, enable, and/ or constrain movement and use.
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