�.��v3��d7g�v��Q�G�a@Hd#�E(�7��鐲�X��RAgp�Ծ�3��c�^�b��ُc�>C����#�Pb���O�t��T(t�Ì>Q��P,���(�Y�N�0 .�B��L�����J?қ�{�TR�C����|V��{�TRw��Z��O�� ��R�/^h\�x��9P_0|�� �x�쑗�gO�=C��.2l���! �+��S?�OF��� 8�����J���n��iP�����X��p���Y�����a�&��>j?��L�� �@L��u"��@ ��ÎJ /�w������w�Մ�i�*�#��/�S���Xԏ:���w~�~C+�|vJ�� � .��vq@r̩��x��OY�"�F����D>C`��� ��_:�I���!�~.�> �}��\��qQk��yy1aG~9�m�sm{�#~��uLؾ^[�_�'Ȉ�Y՟�M�n�{�����X!�u��W�&RI���f�KJRVYL������Y�$5G��Бq�CM�I��Ы1��+ѳ6�U��E�Jէ�U�@�, Proof. (t)2* (p)(q) no= --------------------- (d)2. 55 0 obj <>stream x�+T0�3T0 A(��˥d��^�U�`fn�R�523�` /Colors 3 The formula for the mean employs σ2 instead of (p x q), as shown in Equation 7. Sample size: Theoretical aspects, formulas Finite population correction for proportions n0 - the initial sample size n - adjusted sample size N - the population size. endobj h��YkkG�+�v�=%`'QRHBILS�����R��4��������Jk�n)=�Ѽ�>Ξ��Z�t�Ս��5�N��6�X�����X�h�h:4::���I���X�cCCN�D�4�$�8fh�4�;�m���j~���uxH׼og << endstream endobj 39 0 obj <>stream /CreationDate (D:20150627181653+10'00') Steps for sample size (Cochran's formulas): I. Cochran's sample size formula for categorical data for an alpha level a priori at .05 (error of 5%) = n0=(t)2*(p)(q)/(d)2=384 Where: n0 is the sample size, t is the value for the selected alpha level, e.g. �����v�;���q�;w��S���--uo�ij�&M������2���g33;;�f�?�����R) �@ He�e�@ �� not restricted to stratified random sampling; that is, the sample from any stratum need not be a simple random sample. /Filter /FlateDecode /ProcSet [ /PDF /ImageC ] >>>> /Resources << 26 0 obj << /Type /XObject endstream x��xI��Vw� H��W�r�8����f�d� ��2�2���L*vm^�����"�����ƅ�$:�y�r�mQ`_Nw�>�}X�����׫���ޑՋ�1��"��[xLjrG,���D~"?����� �#m�u���X�D,#��d4XN�"�N ����O��՚�����5X��hOVҼ��$�7��ڳI�����%�b�Wcw$M��dYQ�}&�~#P��@_�J�t�ؒ�=Y�>�h\E����x���t4� >> L E(y.,) = E L WhYh w, yh h:l h=l s~nce the estimates are unbiased in individual strata. 11aeorem S.l. /DecodeParms << endobj /Parent 45 0 R /Length 52 November 2013 , Analysis of sample size in consumer surveys , GfK Polonia 8 g�����Ʈz&� 2]6"6��>ab����g�b!Z�����c� �K�!b�@��Q����$q �S(�-��u�TN1 �����d|��K�*�����]�b���jT�%�������������Κ͠�� �ݔ�ę7��j�W�h��Z��ݵ8�@ ��rd�1�DI���@�g֘M��F�[�W(���~H�z����1�Y�i'ЩA�����,zZ��@�'a�I���|3CC��4@������g"�/��84`�.����U����^ {%A���������V�Q��(��0z������PXn�k#�@��y���=��/R~�ƒ4�~���d���ybf~���@ ��xt�0�2R�D���ZJ"�g��ά�[��� �@���]�E��o��r94�^����#�:-P��{-�}̏�O�k(J�1k�A�d��A �|��2/L�'�݀_��ږU�/ stream :_�@ f�ǒy����|�5 _(K�Rޟz�;��-o��C��/��F�Ă��nfX������0[M]/�G��F�r���ȿ����x]\��7߅]۩H�5=s�aeoh��:&�:��&�in(�N�p�F)-��I4O��w� z�&"�\�V�&wwב���(��lL&����S�|���ѭ������U�OG�Ttc�ЅC. #��j����Z��h�d^z���5w���ゴ:SO�/���Ǐ\ ɼ�U���a���� �B����|Bͥ��a7ه��F+�dގ!�K� M=��k��n���U���P�u�p���t���Ϻ�5 � ���nz�b��� b~�G�ټ'#��/���sc eR�%�,��T�����U㉿��M_�O�i-�ݙޙ\+��Z�y�j}�X`�%%���d^"ȗ}Q��Qs�'VӃT�j���@��!� ��t��M�(,v�S��-�I�ɵ>̬����8]�hlP�H檖FF"~>o�,߻��E�����M�3'Վn��Q۟�S(`��iX�'���|X%�r5��tf7=B��7�!b$*����㟎B�?�g���r��0�D�282oC�pњ!3v+�GW?S��[���e��:�ҹC�40���R��fT�����ip�'�M��3���F�%���͎Q8ކ�(�@N%�y����t4R��E��ì��q��M��ԏ�P+F�DD���튕�|�j���S;���g�Vh����$r�G��Cf{����=�q]���,�R���l4R�F=�^}p�����˼�wg@����pLЪ� �r�'�~R�>$~�z��+�!� �@ f��ʼT��_͐d��g1뮧y�0�W���h�rh t�u�J�s���l��U�I��ғᨻ)v5�M�i�m�@ �y��2��'�/[v�#TdžF��F���*���2�B�?����8�-�2����� ��Գ�.�Y w�)(�!bv*��?�~�G=���4վ����Q��8�o��Ƕ�Hm�?��Xd�U�2O�ώ����?�V�?��Jc7 �@ :P e^�~E�f�z:���mu4 K�k8�����?�ۺT�:?�9\��w%�7��j�g�'ɕ��. h�bbd``b`�)@�q���_/0012lI00RD�g�� � f� endstream /PTEX.InfoDict 46 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode �sO�d���=�Ӹ�p��=��g���j�D�۳o��W�2O���_^/��7y��"/{��jg���mct;[�v���j�s��!`�g�|7�[�/Wכ���f�j��Y^�_�?���˳������7���ru݄о��(w��t����ş_�$�Y~٭7�o�n�4{x>�.��!/W�k���"�o�e�v�eGg]����;�t���`�z[vc��w]c�a��G�)bF�U�hi�0���օ~֟yN�`���lHP������)0��6_�lAw�Z�Kř�m~p���@��r����4h̻F+"4����&D�0�[J���ڑA��֕�p�z&"�D The Cochran’s Q test and associated multiple comparisons require the following assumptions: 1. << /FormType 1 /Subtype /Image p is the estimated proportion of an attribute that is present in the population. �y�@*-P�!��@��@ ��e�@ �J�y�@*-P�!��@��@ ��e�@ �J�y�@*-P�!��@��@ ��e�@ �J�y�@*-P�!��@��@ ��e�@ �J�y�@*-P�!��@��@ ��e�@ �J�y�@*-P�!��@��@ ��e�@ �J�y�@*-P�!��@��@ ��e�"�J�HQ���M��Ea{��9�$@�7� O��)��F"_cHR���@ (�&E����7�I�C0|�|ݎ�܂�ڊ�ܒ�r1~!R��2o Moreover, taking a too large sample size would also escalate the cost of study. /R8 48 0 R Therefore, the sample size is an essential factor of any scientific research. is unbiased, then Y~r is an unbiased estimate of the population mean Y. >> /OPM 1 Download full-text PDF Read full-text. >> /Type /Page >> endobj ... for continuous and categorical variables using Cochran's (1977) formulas are described. /Width 674 If in every stratum the sample estimate y,. The formula of the sample size for the mean is similar to that of the proportion, except for the measure of variability. %PDF-1.3 %���� /Subtype /Form << /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] ? 48 0 obj 47 0 obj /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /Resources 28 0 R The second method is to use the formula for the sample size for the mean. Cochran’s sample size formula for categorical data and an example of its use is presented here along with explanations as to how these decisions were made. The sample size is sufficiently “large”. q is 1-p. �Le�(Ld#"�D ER1W*ȒrS��/Hi�Ξ��!��զ�)CV�@ �u&�Lֶ�T�^*�AJS$��D7H<=F�XWe�YE���g=�X�̣ E�[E {t��l�>?���S�H4D���RA�� R�r�}�k5z�Ɍj��d�!�@ � ʼ*7��fR�V�)NMc(�u�t[��.����) �J�2��d�:`�/妊2n����EZ�ܡ�� ��P��H�qU�u�$.խ�m0ͣͣ;��ǰ̓@ Heʼ�JI�cq�Uq�-���P�R�Bi�h��)lOC� �@ �J �y����)gE)g��t�]��܂�3��֞L��*��@�70�G�/�%��HR�i�Hf:Ӽ���p�MsE�T��)"g\%�C����2ͣ=`վ�� �@ �ʼ�H%|Q�iQ�A)/��m�AulLOsmm�@ ��@��)"��~�!䘻-�Pl��g�\ۘ�!1'P�uA*E�i����H���n�z�곩N�����(�Z#�}*�^�4wC�Bun��G��n�@ ��@����!�Y+θn�� ��;�Q}�ng�@ �t@�'�T"}�'��CB��n����g�|A?�� e^3��7�������n�a�؅2k��s��# e��'��,J: Y/� /Creator (JASC, Inc.) =��j B�̻��|/[u�{��Z�Nsk#h^׉��&$\���x�]�aq��^Co�zD�����i�e��K#�Ќ�9�mӛuQޫ*�� �#�&w�^. Sathian (2010) has >> !���6�'�ug=�M�MDHvX���-Qe'���s��0����&4�V�3$�^�u�i=��)۳��*o2�o �]��w� ���{�j���L��0�Gܖ� zmб���XR�G�\�B�|��ӯ�4��if�6�ba*��No�j�`�S%�Y�z��5i��*�tv����8vw�� v���ʟ����ߓ��Yo:�"o'�1��egJ�c��}��a���R�B��^�x�`��e�®)n��-�P�Lx=]6c�;��>�\ �W���&�"���^�y�8w�m��~��'����^۵ Shopping Apps For Clothes, Best Tea Blends, Homemade Pizza Without Yeast, Chicken Carbonara Pasta Domino's, Google Account Executive Salary, Costco Frozen Pizza, Sidisi, Brood Tyrant, Oh Calcutta Silver Arcade Menu, " />
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cochran sample size formula pdf

E2���>��J��W)�R���T�yM�yH|N�2g�Hg���:�R��Ae��Σ�"�5�p,0�) ��?����@�����t��C�`���>�.��v3��d7g�v��Q�G�a@Hd#�E(�7��鐲�X��RAgp�Ծ�3��c�^�b��ُc�>C����#�Pb���O�t��T(t�Ì>Q��P,���(�Y�N�0 .�B��L�����J?қ�{�TR�C����|V��{�TRw��Z��O�� ��R�/^h\�x��9P_0|�� �x�쑗�gO�=C��.2l���! �+��S?�OF��� 8�����J���n��iP�����X��p���Y�����a�&��>j?��L�� �@L��u"��@ ��ÎJ /�w������w�Մ�i�*�#��/�S���Xԏ:���w~�~C+�|vJ�� � .��vq@r̩��x��OY�"�F����D>C`��� ��_:�I���!�~.�> �}��\��qQk��yy1aG~9�m�sm{�#~��uLؾ^[�_�'Ȉ�Y՟�M�n�{�����X!�u��W�&RI���f�KJRVYL������Y�$5G��Бq�CM�I��Ы1��+ѳ6�U��E�Jէ�U�@�, Proof. (t)2* (p)(q) no= --------------------- (d)2. 55 0 obj <>stream x�+T0�3T0 A(��˥d��^�U�`fn�R�523�` /Colors 3 The formula for the mean employs σ2 instead of (p x q), as shown in Equation 7. Sample size: Theoretical aspects, formulas Finite population correction for proportions n0 - the initial sample size n - adjusted sample size N - the population size. endobj h��YkkG�+�v�=%`'QRHBILS�����R��4��������Jk�n)=�Ѽ�>Ξ��Z�t�Ս��5�N��6�X�����X�h�h:4::���I���X�cCCN�D�4�$�8fh�4�;�m���j~���uxH׼og << endstream endobj 39 0 obj <>stream /CreationDate (D:20150627181653+10'00') Steps for sample size (Cochran's formulas): I. Cochran's sample size formula for categorical data for an alpha level a priori at .05 (error of 5%) = n0=(t)2*(p)(q)/(d)2=384 Where: n0 is the sample size, t is the value for the selected alpha level, e.g. �����v�;���q�;w��S���--uo�ij�&M������2���g33;;�f�?�����R) �@ He�e�@ �� not restricted to stratified random sampling; that is, the sample from any stratum need not be a simple random sample. /Filter /FlateDecode /ProcSet [ /PDF /ImageC ] >>>> /Resources << 26 0 obj << /Type /XObject endstream x��xI��Vw� H��W�r�8����f�d� ��2�2���L*vm^�����"�����ƅ�$:�y�r�mQ`_Nw�>�}X�����׫���ޑՋ�1��"��[xLjrG,���D~"?����� �#m�u���X�D,#��d4XN�"�N ����O��՚�����5X��hOVҼ��$�7��ڳI�����%�b�Wcw$M��dYQ�}&�~#P��@_�J�t�ؒ�=Y�>�h\E����x���t4� >> L E(y.,) = E L WhYh w, yh h:l h=l s~nce the estimates are unbiased in individual strata. 11aeorem S.l. /DecodeParms << endobj /Parent 45 0 R /Length 52 November 2013 , Analysis of sample size in consumer surveys , GfK Polonia 8 g�����Ʈz&� 2]6"6��>ab����g�b!Z�����c� �K�!b�@��Q����$q �S(�-��u�TN1 �����d|��K�*�����]�b���jT�%�������������Κ͠�� �ݔ�ę7��j�W�h��Z��ݵ8�@ ��rd�1�DI���@�g֘M��F�[�W(���~H�z����1�Y�i'ЩA�����,zZ��@�'a�I���|3CC��4@������g"�/��84`�.����U����^ {%A���������V�Q��(��0z������PXn�k#�@��y���=��/R~�ƒ4�~���d���ybf~���@ ��xt�0�2R�D���ZJ"�g��ά�[��� �@���]�E��o��r94�^����#�:-P��{-�}̏�O�k(J�1k�A�d��A �|��2/L�'�݀_��ږU�/ stream :_�@ f�ǒy����|�5 _(K�Rޟz�;��-o��C��/��F�Ă��nfX������0[M]/�G��F�r���ȿ����x]\��7߅]۩H�5=s�aeoh��:&�:��&�in(�N�p�F)-��I4O��w� z�&"�\�V�&wwב���(��lL&����S�|���ѭ������U�OG�Ttc�ЅC. #��j����Z��h�d^z���5w���ゴ:SO�/���Ǐ\ ɼ�U���a���� �B����|Bͥ��a7ه��F+�dގ!�K� M=��k��n���U���P�u�p���t���Ϻ�5 � ���nz�b��� b~�G�ټ'#��/���sc eR�%�,��T�����U㉿��M_�O�i-�ݙޙ\+��Z�y�j}�X`�%%���d^"ȗ}Q��Qs�'VӃT�j���@��!� ��t��M�(,v�S��-�I�ɵ>̬����8]�hlP�H檖FF"~>o�,߻��E�����M�3'Վn��Q۟�S(`��iX�'���|X%�r5��tf7=B��7�!b$*����㟎B�?�g���r��0�D�282oC�pњ!3v+�GW?S��[���e��:�ҹC�40���R��fT�����ip�'�M��3���F�%���͎Q8ކ�(�@N%�y����t4R��E��ì��q��M��ԏ�P+F�DD���튕�|�j���S;���g�Vh����$r�G��Cf{����=�q]���,�R���l4R�F=�^}p�����˼�wg@����pLЪ� �r�'�~R�>$~�z��+�!� �@ f��ʼT��_͐d��g1뮧y�0�W���h�rh t�u�J�s���l��U�I��ғᨻ)v5�M�i�m�@ �y��2��'�/[v�#TdžF��F���*���2�B�?����8�-�2����� ��Գ�.�Y w�)(�!bv*��?�~�G=���4վ����Q��8�o��Ƕ�Hm�?��Xd�U�2O�ώ����?�V�?��Jc7 �@ :P e^�~E�f�z:���mu4 K�k8�����?�ۺT�:?�9\��w%�7��j�g�'ɕ��. h�bbd``b`�)@�q���_/0012lI00RD�g�� � f� endstream /PTEX.InfoDict 46 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode �sO�d���=�Ӹ�p��=��g���j�D�۳o��W�2O���_^/��7y��"/{��jg���mct;[�v���j�s��!`�g�|7�[�/Wכ���f�j��Y^�_�?���˳������7���ru݄о��(w��t����ş_�$�Y~٭7�o�n�4{x>�.��!/W�k���"�o�e�v�eGg]����;�t���`�z[vc��w]c�a��G�)bF�U�hi�0���օ~֟yN�`���lHP������)0��6_�lAw�Z�Kř�m~p���@��r����4h̻F+"4����&D�0�[J���ڑA��֕�p�z&"�D The Cochran’s Q test and associated multiple comparisons require the following assumptions: 1. << /FormType 1 /Subtype /Image p is the estimated proportion of an attribute that is present in the population. �y�@*-P�!��@��@ ��e�@ �J�y�@*-P�!��@��@ ��e�@ �J�y�@*-P�!��@��@ ��e�@ �J�y�@*-P�!��@��@ ��e�@ �J�y�@*-P�!��@��@ ��e�@ �J�y�@*-P�!��@��@ ��e�@ �J�y�@*-P�!��@��@ ��e�"�J�HQ���M��Ea{��9�$@�7� O��)��F"_cHR���@ (�&E����7�I�C0|�|ݎ�܂�ڊ�ܒ�r1~!R��2o Moreover, taking a too large sample size would also escalate the cost of study. /R8 48 0 R Therefore, the sample size is an essential factor of any scientific research. is unbiased, then Y~r is an unbiased estimate of the population mean Y. >> /OPM 1 Download full-text PDF Read full-text. >> /Type /Page >> endobj ... for continuous and categorical variables using Cochran's (1977) formulas are described. /Width 674 If in every stratum the sample estimate y,. The formula of the sample size for the mean is similar to that of the proportion, except for the measure of variability. %PDF-1.3 %���� /Subtype /Form << /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] ? 48 0 obj 47 0 obj /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /Resources 28 0 R The second method is to use the formula for the sample size for the mean. Cochran’s sample size formula for categorical data and an example of its use is presented here along with explanations as to how these decisions were made. The sample size is sufficiently “large”. q is 1-p. �Le�(Ld#"�D ER1W*ȒrS��/Hi�Ξ��!��զ�)CV�@ �u&�Lֶ�T�^*�AJS$��D7H<=F�XWe�YE���g=�X�̣ E�[E {t��l�>?���S�H4D���RA�� R�r�}�k5z�Ɍj��d�!�@ � ʼ*7��fR�V�)NMc(�u�t[��.����) �J�2��d�:`�/妊2n����EZ�ܡ�� ��P��H�qU�u�$.խ�m0ͣͣ;��ǰ̓@ Heʼ�JI�cq�Uq�-���P�R�Bi�h��)lOC� �@ �J �y����)gE)g��t�]��܂�3��֞L��*��@�70�G�/�%��HR�i�Hf:Ӽ���p�MsE�T��)"g\%�C����2ͣ=`վ�� �@ �ʼ�H%|Q�iQ�A)/��m�AulLOsmm�@ ��@��)"��~�!䘻-�Pl��g�\ۘ�!1'P�uA*E�i����H���n�z�곩N�����(�Z#�}*�^�4wC�Bun��G��n�@ ��@����!�Y+θn�� ��;�Q}�ng�@ �t@�'�T"}�'��CB��n����g�|A?�� e^3��7�������n�a�؅2k��s��# e��'��,J: Y/� /Creator (JASC, Inc.) =��j B�̻��|/[u�{��Z�Nsk#h^׉��&$\���x�]�aq��^Co�zD�����i�e��K#�Ќ�9�mӛuQޫ*�� �#�&w�^. Sathian (2010) has >> !���6�'�ug=�M�MDHvX���-Qe'���s��0����&4�V�3$�^�u�i=��)۳��*o2�o �]��w� ���{�j���L��0�Gܖ� zmб���XR�G�\�B�|��ӯ�4��if�6�ba*��No�j�`�S%�Y�z��5i��*�tv����8vw�� v���ʟ����ߓ��Yo:�"o'�1��egJ�c��}��a���R�B��^�x�`��e�®)n��-�P�Lx=]6c�;��>�\ �W���&�"���^�y�8w�m��~��'����^۵

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